The Environmental Protection Division represents the state in matters pertaining to environmental protection, natural resources and public utilities. EPD's clients include the Commission on Environmental Quality, Public Utility Commission, General Land Office, Railroad Commission, Water Development Board, Department of Agriculture, Department of State Health Services, Parks and Wildlife Department and state river compact commissions. EPD prosecutes and defends cases in state and federal courts and in administrative proceedings.

The work of the division is primarily organized within four sections: The Enforcement Section prosecutes cases against those who violate laws protecting the health and safety of the people of Texas and the environment in which they live. The Defense Section represents the state and its environmental agencies when their decisions or actions are challenged in court or when federal regulators impose policy choices that are inconsistent with the state's interests in protecting the environment. The Natural Resources Section represents the state in a variety of matters relating to the State's natural resources, including public land litigation involving title and boundary disputes, public beach access, coastal dune protection, colonias prevention, and mineral valuation on state lands. The Utilities Section represents the state and its agencies in a variety of matters relating to the regulation of electric, telecommunication, and water utilities in Texas.